Hazards?? that threatens our Health
  1. biological- ex. virus, bacteria,protists
  2. Chemical - ex. Air, water, soil, home
  3. Physical - ex. natural disasters
  4. Cultural - ex. lifestyle choices and culture
Toxicology: Toxin is a substance that is posionous to people and other living things. Toxiccology is the study of chemicals that are or or could be toxic
Carcinogen: A toxin that increases the risk of cancer. They are among the most feared toxins in society and greatly regulated.

Pollution ("is unwanted) [either biological or chemical] - that creates contamination that could be toxic (lethal or sub-lethal)
types of contaminations are heavy metals, carcinogens, HAAs (hormonally active agent), infectious diseases

Catergories of Pollution

  1. HAA'S
  2. Particles
  3. Organic Compounds
  4. Heavy Metals
  5. Electromagnetic
  6. Noise
  7. Thermal Pollution
  8. Infectious agents

As the trophic level increases concentration increases "the dose makes the poison"

1. infectious disease/agents
  • pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, and protists
  • viruses ex. flu, and HIV/Aids
  • bacteria ex. ecloli and salmonila
  • protists ex. malaria

2. Heavy Metals503503
  • Hg-Mercury <--- used in: thermometers, nats, and coal
  • Pb-Lead <--- used in: paints, pipes, gasoline
  • most are neurotoxins
  • most bioaccumulate (the accumulation and increase in concentration of a substance) in fatty tissues and biomagnify i food web

3. Organic Compounds

  • (CHO)
  • gasoline, sewage, Synthetics "POPs" = persistent organic polluants
  1. carbon-based structure containing highly reactive chlorine
  2. made by humans called synthtic chemicals
  3. do not easily break down
  4. they are polluting and toxic
  5. fat is likely to accumulate in living tissue
  6. occur in diff. forms which is used to be transported by wind, water, and sediments for long distances

4. HAA's

  • (Mimic natural hormones)... disrupt the chemical signal system of body=endocrine system
  • ex: Atrazine, Dioxine, pthalates (in most plastics), BPA

5. Electro Magnetic

  • Electromagnetic pollution comes from common electrical conveiences, such as power lines/cables, and anything that uses electricity (however, impacts only truly have effect in things that utilize a lot of electricity).
  • Common problems that exist from EMP (haha COD joke, eh?) are mostly radiation problems (mutations in genes, etc).

6. **Noise
  • Noise pollution comes from noise sources, such as loud speakers, subwoofers, loud engines, mad teenage girls, airplanes that come unnecessarily close to my house, etc.
  • Problems aren't those of direct consequences, rather, noise can cause natural disruption, animals to leave, loss of sleep, etc.

  • Thermal pollution comes from heat sources, such as factories, power plants. Common problem is hot water that is disspelled from a power plant (was used to coal it down).
  • Warm water can cause problems with the natural habitat and can end up in mutations, fish kills, or fish leaving the area, etc. Thermal can also affect land wildlife, cause nobody likes to be hot. Oh, and this text editor won't let me unitalicize my text, so that's why it's like this.

LD 50**

  • LD 50 is a useful benchmark for judging relative toxicity in humans
  • it stands for amount in one dose that kills exactly 50% of a test population in 14 days
  • When the value of the LD50 decrease, toxicity increases
LD50 graph

Important concepts and terms
  1. "Precautionary Principle":Take cost effective measures to protect ourselves even when we are not entirely certain about the risk.
  2. Risk Assessment: Determining potential health effects on people exposed to environmental pollutants.
    1. identify
    2. dose response
    3. expose
    4. risk characterization
  3. Risk Management : Actions taken to help minimize health problems.
  4. Acute Effect: An acute effect is one that occurs soon after exposure, usually to large amounts of a pollutant.
  5. Chronic Effect: Chronic effect takes place over a long period of time. Often as a result of prolonged exposure to low levels of a pollutant.
  6. Dose Response cure: How a chemical affects an individual depends on the dose.
  7. Threshold Effect:A level below which no effect occurs and above which effects begin to occur.